LDAP LINUX LDAP Directory Server Installation and configuration

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LDAP LINUX LDAP Directory Server Installation and configuration

Post by jamied_uk on 10th December 2013, 13:10

http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialLDAP.html


 Description: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a means of serving data on individuals, system users, network devices and systems over the network for e-mail clients, applications requiring authentication or information. The LDAP server is a means of providing a single directory source (with a redundant backup optional) for system information look-up and authentication. Using the LDAP server configuration example on this page will enable you to create an LDAP server to support email clients, web authentication, etc. We have many useful links for other LDAP deployments. LDAP can also be distributed in a hierarchical fashion but my examples refer to a single LDAP server. This tutorial will cover the setup and configuration of an LDAP server on Linux, the loading of data and use. Once configured, I recommend "gq" as an admin tool. (Note: Red Hat no longer ship with gq but it can still be downloaded and compiled manually.)

Simply put, this tutorial will enable you to create an LDAP server to which your e-mail clients (Outlook, Mozilla, Netscape, etc) can connect with their address books. It will allow one to search the LDAP database for people's e-mail addresses which are then pulled into the address list. Try it out with Thunderbird, Mozilla, Netscape or Outlook on our LDAP site ldap.yolinux.com for a demo. Cool eh! You can also try out authentication by pointing your application to authenticate at ldap.yolinux.com.
LDAP Server Tutorial Table of Contents:

    # LDAP e-Mail Clients: configuration etc
    # OpenLDAP Tutorial: Server Installation, Configuration, slapd, Loading LDIF data, Usage - (Creating a web accessible address book directory server.)
        # Quick Start Example and Test
        # Performance considerations
        # LDAP Database Backup
    # LDAP Manual pages
    # Berkeley BDB database
    # Links to other YoLinux LDAP tutorials
    # LDAP Links
    # LDAP Books

    Linux LDAP rolodex

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Related YoLinux LDAP Tutorials:

°slapd configuration

°Client Linux system login authentication

°Apache Web Site Authentication

°LDAP bind Authentication

°Extending schemas

°Schema for MS/Outlook

°LDAP web client

°YoLinux Tutorials Index

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Why LDAP?:

LDAP can provide a central directory of information for:

    Computer system logins and passwords. (Linux authentication tutorial) These logins and passwords can also be used for web site (Apache LDAP authentication), email server (Postfix, QMail, ...), internet proxy server (Squid), ... etc ... authentication.
    User directory information for names and email addresses for LDAP enabled email clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird or Microsoft Outlook.
    Web directories (AWebDap), etc ... Any LDAP enabled client.
    DNS information for local networks.

Try it out now. Connect to our LDAP server with your email client:

    Try out your email client with our LDAP server. (Fake address book with the Three Stooges. Don't bother e-mailing them, they are not real people.)

Try Mozilla email client with ldap server ldap.yolinux.com:

    Open the Address Book: "Window" + "Address Book"
    Select from the tool bar: "File" + "New" + "LDAP Directory ..."
    "General" Tab
        Name: YoLinux Demo
        Hostname: ldap.yolinux.com
        Base DN: o=stooges
        Port number: 389
        Bind DN: Leave blank
        Press "OK" (No encryption)
    "Advanced" tab will allow advanced queries.
    Close the Address Book: "File" + "Close"
    Mozilla must be restarted (bug) in order for the configuration to register. (Mozilla 1.2.1): "File" + "Quit" and relaunch Mozilla.
    Open e-mail client: "Window" + "Mail and News Groups"
        Select the "Compose".
        Open the Address Selection Box: Select the icon "Address"
            Look in: "YoLinux Demo"
            Select from pull down menu.
            for: @
            Put in name of any of the three stooges i.e. moe. or last name anderson to list all three or "@" to get everyone with an email address
            Select address to send e-mail to. Of course this is a demo and the e-mail addresses are bogus but I think you get the point.
        Mozilla Address Book

Try Netscape 4.7x email client with ldap server ldap.yolinux.com:

    Open the Address Book: "Communicator" + "Address Book"
    Enter Directory Info: "File" + "New Directory..."
        Description: YoLinux Demo
        LDAP Server: 208.188.34.109 or ldap.yolinux.com Using the IP address reduces the number of errors because of the reduced network latency.
        Server Root: o=stooges
        Port Number: 389
        Press "OK" (Not secure and no login)
    Close the Address Book: "File" + "Close"
    Open e-mail client: "Communicator" + "Messenger"
        Open Composer ("File" + "New" + "Message"): Select "New Msg" icon.
        Open the Address Selection Box: Select the icon "Address"
        Populate Address List with e-mail addresses from LDAP server:
            Select from the "Directory" pull down menu "YoLinux Demo"
            Show names containing: Fine (Don't press enter. Just wait or enter "Tab")
            Select address to send e-mail to. Of course this is a demo and the e-mail addresses are bogus but I think you get the point.

Tips:

    To select all those with email addresses out of a database where not all entries have them, search on "@".

Note on email clients:

For other e-mail clients such as Outlook, see the University of Alabama (UAB) LDAP client tutorial. Note that Outlook Express and Outlook 2000 are configured differently than Outlook 2000 professional. For MS/Windows users I have found that the Qualcom Eudora mail client to be the most advanced at supporting LDAP functionality and searches. Also see the Megawebhost.com LDAP E-Mail Client Configuration tutorial

More on LDAP: LDAP data entries are organized in a "Directory Information Tree" (DIT) which may be divided among servers defined by their organizational association. When a request is made to an LDAP server and the information is not available locally, LDAP can use it's referral capability to seek this data from the other servers in the tree structure. In this way a global network of LDAP servers appear as a single server. This tutorial covers the use of a single LDAP server.

LDAP data can support more than address directory services. It can act as a DNS and propagate data to other servers. It supports a client server protocol to supply data for authentication (passwords) in support of apache, squid, sendmail, NFS/NIS, PAM, POP, IMAP or any client written to support the LDAP protocol. In this way one database can hold all of the login/authentication information for a unified login across the enterprise. The OpenLDAP server software includes two daemon server services:

    slapd: A stand-alone LDAP server
    slurpd: A stand-alone replication server (Used in hierarchical network of LDAP servers. Not covered in this tutorial.)

OpenLDAP also includes many command line tools, utilities and sample clients.

LDAP e-Mail clients:

There are a plethora of Linux e-mail clients which claim to support LDAP. I have had my best luck with Netscape 4.7x. Microsoft Outlook will support LDAP searches for an individual name or partial string. For the MS/Windows platform, Eudora seems to support LDAP the best by allowing very sophisticated queries. The Linux "Balsa" e-mail client supports LDAP but it downloads the entire address book with no search filters. This can be cumbersome if the LDAP address book has a large number of entries. (They obviously tested with a small address book). One can perform the same search in Netscape by entering a "*" to download everything. Most email clients support a search for email address containing "@" to get all email addresses.

The e-mail client has to be configured to point to the LDAP server (i.e. ldap.your-domain.org) and must be given a "root" in the directory tree from which to begin searches. From this information the e-mail client can search the LDAP server for e-mail addresses which can be pulled down to the local client.

Note that Microsoft Outlook Express and Outlook 2000 are configured differently than Outlook 2000 professional. For MS/Windows use the Qualcom Eudora mail client as it seems to be the most advanced at supporting LDAP functionality and searches.

LDAP e-Mail Clients:

    Megawebhost.com: Configuring LDAP e-mail clients - TUTORIAL
    Using LDAP enabled eMail clients - Netscape, Pegasus, Outlook [advanced]
    Linux LDAP e-mail clients - YoLinux list of E-Mail clients
    Netscape (4.5 and later): Communicator setup - [Steps in brief]
    Pegasus
    Microsoft Outlook: Configuration - Using - [Steps in brief]
        MS/Outlook97/98/2000 LDAP Addons
    Eudora
    PALM:
        Sync with Palm
        YoLinux.com TUTORIAL: Mapping LDAP inetOrgPerson object attributes to Palm Pilot Desktop CSV exchange file
        ABSync - sync Mozilla address book with Palm/Pilot
        Sylpheed - V-Card, J-Pilot and LDAP Address Book Patch. Requires JPilot.org - Linux desktop organizer for PALM
        Intellisync

OpenLDAP Tutorial: LDAP Server Installation, Configuration, Loading data, Usage Overview.

The following steps will lead to an operational OpenLDAP 2.x server:

    Install packages:
        Red Hat / Fedora RPM packages openldap, openldap-clints, openldap-servers and openldap12: openldap, openldap-clients, openldap-servers, openldap12
        (rpm -ivh openldap-2.x...rpm openldap-clients-2.x...rpm openldap-servers-2.x...rpm openldap12-1.2...rpm)
        Ubuntu (dapper 6.06)/Debian: slapd, ldap-utils, libldap2, libldap2-dev, libdb4.2
        Ubuntu (hardy 8.04)/Debian: slapd, ldap-utils, libdb4.3
        S.u.S.e.: openldap2, openldap2-client
    Edit configuration files:
        slapd.conf - Holds configuration info, domain info, admin info and references "include files".
            Red Hat / Fedora: /etc/openldap/slapd.conf
            Ubuntu / Debian: /etc/ldap/slapd.conf
            (Ubuntu 6.06) See example: /usr/share/slapd.slapd.conf)
        /etc/default/slapd - (Ubuntu) Defaults should be ok.
        Create the include file for the Object definition. This defines the data to be held by the LDAP server. (Use include file or add it to end of slapd.conf) It is easiest to use an existing LDAP object class that comes pre-defined with OpenLDAP. If this does not meet your requirements define a new object which inherits basic attributes from an existing and defined object class.
    Create an LDIF data file: This is the actual data you wish to store in the LDAP database. It follows an object model (data schema) defined in either a pre-existing object definition or in an object model definition you have defined in a slapd.conf include file.
    Start the LDAP database:
        Red Hat / Fedora: service ldap start (or: /etc/init.d/ldap start)
        Ubuntu (dapper 6.06 - hardy 8.04)/ Debian: /etc/init.d/slapd start
    (Option: Starting LDAP manually (as root): /usr/sbin/slapd -u ldap -h '"ldap:/// ldaps:///"')
    Load the LDIF data file into the database:
        ldapadd -f file-name.ldif -xv -D "CN-with-privileges" -h host-name-of-server -W
        you will be prompted for a password. or
        ldapadd -f file-name.ldif -xv -D "CN-with-privileges" -h host-name-of-server -w password
    Test LDAP: Use an e-mail client such as Mozilla Seamonkey, Netscape or Outlook to access the data on the server.
    Manage:View, query and make changes to the data using the web front-end aWebDap or an admin tool like "gq". (or use LDAP command line interface) Try the online aWebDap demo.

LDAP Server - Quick Start Example and Test:

(This will result in an operational LDAP server with data.)

Download and use the following two sample files:

    slapd.conf
        OpenLDAP 2.x (Red Hat 7.1-9.0, Fedora 1-6, RHEL/CentOS 5): /etc/openldap/slapd.conf
        Ubuntu 8.04 / Debian: /etc/ldap/slapd.conf
        Ubuntu 6.11 / Debian: /etc/ldap/slapd.conf
    stooges.ldif - LDAP data file
    (Simple noauth ldif example: stooges.ldif)

Note for Fedora Core 3 and later: (OpenLDAP 2.2.13 and later) Add the statement "allow bind_v2" after the schema "include" directives in the file /etc/openldap/slapd.conf if you wish to allow the use of older clients.

Then execute the following commands as root:

    mkdir /var/lib/ldap/stooges /var/lib/ldap/fraternity
    Update or replace /etc/openldap/slapd.conf with file supplied for this demo.
    Set file ownership:
        Red Hat/Fedora:
            chown ldap.ldap /var/lib/ldap/stooges /var/lib/ldap/fraternity /etc/openldap/slapd.conf
            SELinux: chcon -u system_u -t slapd_db_t /var/lib/ldap/stooges /var/lib/ldap/fraternity
            chcon -u system_u -t etc_t /etc/openldap/slapd.conf
            (This step should not be necessary. Verify security context settings with ls -lZ)
        Ubuntu:
            chown openldap.openldap /var/lib/ldap/stooges /var/lib/ldap/fraternity /etc/ldap/slapd.conf
            Ubuntu hardy 8.04: Change the security policy to allow subdirectories under /var/lib/ldap/:
            Edit file: /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.slapd
            change from: /var/lib/ldap/* rw,
            to: /var/lib/ldap/** rwk,
            Restart Apparmor: /etc/init.d/apparmor restart
    Start LDAP service:
        Red Hat/Fedora: /etc/init.d/ldap start
        Ubuntu/Debian: /etc/init.d/slapd start
    Note: You may have to stop an already running service.
    ldapadd -f stooges.ldif -xv -D "cn=StoogeAdmin,o=stooges" -h 127.0.0.1 -w secret1
    (or use the flag "-W" and get prompted for the password)

Test with the OpenLDAP command line client:

    ldapsearch -vLx -h 127.0.0.1 -b "o=stooges" "(sn=Fine)"

Test with an email client:

    Mozilla:
        Configure: Open the Address Book: "Window" + "Address Book" + "File" + "New" + "LDAP Directory ..."
        "General" Tab
            Name: Stooges
            Hostname: localhost
            Base DN: o=stooges
            Port Number: 389
        Restart Mozilla, select "Window" + "Mail and News Groups" + "Compose".
        Select icon "Address" + "Stooge" + Search for "&" to get all email addresses.
    Netscape Messenger:
        Configure: "Communicator" + "Address Book" + "File" + "New Directory..." +
            Description: Stooges
            LDAP Server: localhost
            Server Root: o=stooges
            Port Number: 389
        Use: "Communicator" + "Messenger" + "New Msg" icon + "Address" icon + change pull-down menu from "Personal Address Book" to "Stooges". For all enter "*". To search for Moe, enter "moe". (you don't even need to press enter, just wait.) Try the "Search for.." with Name "*" and Department "MemberGroupA". Excellent!

Install the aWebDap CGI executable to provide a user web front-end for search and updates. [Demo]

If you wish to add a second domain try this file: fraternity.ldif
Use the command: ldapadd -f fraternity.ldif -xv -D "cn=DeanWormer,o=delta" -w secret2

Read the rest of this tutorial to see what it all means!
If this doesn't work check out the LDAP pitfall section below.
To secure the LDAP database see the YoLinux LDAP Password Protection and Authentication Tutorial. (Note: This is authentication for the user to access the LDAP database and not using LDAP to authenticate applications)

To run a more complex example with an extended schema to optimally support MS/Outlook and Netscape Communicator see the YoLinux GILSE tutorial and example. If you are going to configure LDAP for your office, you will eventually want to follow this guide.
LDAP V3 improvements:
Note: OpenLDAP version numbers are independent of LDAP version standards.

    Authentication and data security services via Simple Authentication and Security Layer (Cyrus SASL and MD5) and certificate based authentication using Transport Layer Security (GnuTLS) or Secure Socket Layer (OpenSSL)
    Unicode to support internationalization
    Referrals and Continuations
    Schema Discovery
    Extensibility (controls, extended operations, and more)

OpenLDAP Versions:

    Linux version    OpenLDAP version
    Ubuntu 12.04    2.4.28
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
    CentOS 6    2.4.23
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
    CentOS 5    2.3.27
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
    CentOS 4    2.2.13
    Fedora 3    2.2.29
    Ubuntu 8.04    2.4.9

LDAP Data Schema:

LDAP uses an object oriented approach to data and data modeling which includes object definitions (collection of data attributes and rules) and object inheritance.

    The data schema for LDAP is defined by the:

        domain: (i.e. company name)
        object classes
            required attributes: Attributes which must be included to define the object. (i.e. person's last name)
            allowed attributes: Additional attributes which may be included but are not requires. (i.e. fax number)
            optional: "Superior" object (Defines a hierarchy by linking object to a parent object class)
        attribute types
        allowable comparison operation / filter

The statements which describe the object classes and attributes are different in Open LDAP versions 1.2 and 2.x. Unless you require a unique custom configuration it is easiest to use the pre-defined object inetOrgPerson (RFC 2798) included with OpenLDAP 2.x or to define an new object which inherits the inetOrgPerson object schema.

Each LDAP data entry has a "Distinguished Name" (DN) by which it is identified. Each component of the DN is called a "Relative Distinguished Name" (RDN). Operations against the LDAP data include adding, deleting, modifying and querying based on a query filter.
LDAP Configuration/Operation:

    Configuration Files for slapd: This LDAP daemon (slapd) configuration files define the data schema for the data it contains as well as system configurations (i.e. files and database type to use, etc...).

    slapd.conf:

        The main configuration file for the LDAP daemon is: /etc/openldap/slapd.conf (Ubuntu/Debian: /usr/share/slapd/slapd.conf)
        Two versions of OpenLDAP have been released and each has its' own method of configuration, schema definition and configuration statements. The file slapd.conf will reference other "include" files which will contain LDAP data schema definitions.
            OpenLDAP 2.x slapd.conf configuration and LDIF example
            OpenLDAP 1.2 slapd.conf configuration and LDIF example: (RH 6.x RPM: openldap-1.2.9-6) - YoLinux Tutorial

        The main difference between OpenLDAP 1.2 and 2.x is in the object and attribute definitions. OpenLDAP 2.x objects and attributes use OID's while version 1.2 does not. The slapd and database directives are close to being the same with minor enhancements in version 2.x.

        Password Encryption and Security: See the OpenLDAP password FAQ
        To secure the LDAP database see the YoLinux LDAP Password Protection and Authentication Tutorial
        To create a custom data object by extending the inetOrgPerson object see the new LDAP Object/Attribute definition tutorial

    LDIF: Defining Data for the LDAP database
    The input ascii data file format required by LDAP is the ldif format.
    For a more complete example see: OpenLDAP 2.x slapd.conf configuration and LDIF example
    To create a new custom object by extending the inetOrgPerson schema see the new LDAP object/attribute definition tutorial

    The following LDIF example uses the inetOrgPerson object model:

        dn: o=domain-name                      - Define the LDAP root
        objectClass: top
        objectClass: organization
        o: domain-name
        description: Full Company Name

        dn: cn=AdminManager,o=domain-name      - Data entries for the system administrator for the domain as defined in the file: slapd.conf
        objectClass: organizationalRole
        cn: AdminManager
        description: LDAP Directory Administrator

        Note: The following "DN" is great for address book support. For LDAP login authentication server support only, you may want to use the following attributes: uid, mail or employeeNumber.

        dn: cn=Larry Fine,o=domain-name
        cn: Larry Fine                           - Yes it is mentioned in the dn statement but it is repeated here
        objectClass: top                         - These objectclass statements MUST go here for Open LDAP
        objectClass: person
        objectClass: organizationalPerson
        objectClass: inetOrgPerson
        mail: LFine@isp.com
        givenname: Larry
        sn: Fine
        postalAddress: 14 Cherry St.
        l: Dallas
        st: TX
        postalCode: 76888
        telephoneNumber: (800)555-1212
        seeAlso: dc=www,dc=domain-name,dc=org       - Correct method: DN must be previously defined in order to reference it. i.e. dn: dc=www,dc=domain-name,dc=org
        XX Wrong Way! XX seeAlso: http://www.domain-name.org/~larry/ - OpenLDAP object inetOrgPerson expects a DN and this entry cannot be added directly so DO NOT ADD THIS LINE!!!
        jpegPhoto: < file:///path/to/file.jpeg       - JPEG photo from file.
        OR
        jpegPhoto: < http://domain/path/to/file.jpeg - It's in the documentation but I never got it to work.

        ...
        ..

    For a full list of allowable attributes see:
        objectClass definition: person - File: /etc/openldap/schema/core.schema
        objectClass definition: organizationalPerson - File: /etc/openldap/schema/core.schema
        objectClass definition: inetOrgPerson - File: /etc/openldap/schema/inetorgperson.schema

    The LDIF example above corresponds to the following slapd.conf entries for OpenLDAP 2.x:

        database ldbm                - Define the database to be used by LDAP. Each database definition begins with a database statement.
                                       [Tutorial Update]: This tutorial defines ldbm to be the database. (RH 6-9 default)
                                                          Many are now recomending bdb or hdb. FC-3 defaults to bdb.
                                                          Ubuntu 8.04 defaults to hdb.
        suffix "o=domain-name"         [Tutorial Update]: As of OpenLDAP 2.1.13, only one suffix is supported per database.
                                                          Previously this example showed two suffixes defined.
        rootdn "cn=AdminManager,o=domain-name"
        rootpw super-secret-password                      For extra security, encrypt password with slappasswd
        directory /var/lib/ldap/domain-directory
        defaultaccess read
        schemacheck on
        lastmod on
        index cn,sn,st pres,eq,sub

    An alternate style for a base "dn":
        Entry in file: /etc/openldap/slapd.conf
        Examples:
            suffix "dc=ldap,dc=domain-name,dc=org"
            suffix "dc=domain-name,dc=org"
            suffix "st=Texas,c=US"
            suffix "o=CompanyXXX,st=Texas,c=US"
            suffix "o=stooges,dc=domain-name,dc=org"
            suffix "ou=accounting,dc=domain-name,dc=org"
        The suffix defines the base of the directory tree. In a distributed system, various nodes may represent the root of a branch of a larger tree. The root shall be globally unique and static (does not change). Example tree:

                                dc=domain-name,dc=org
                                           |
                        ----------------------------------------
                        |                                      |
                       c=us                 c=jp (Use suffix: c=jp,dc=domain-name,dc=org if on a separate server)
                        |                                      |
                 -------------------                       ------------------
                 |        |        |                       |       |        |
        ou=accounting  ou=sales  ou=research     ou=accounting  ou=sales  ou=research

        LDIF data file: (Match base "dn" as defined in the suffix statement.)

            dn: dc=ldap,dc=domain-name,dc=org    - First define the LDAP domain
            objectClass: top
            objectClass: dcObject
            objectClass: organization
            dc: domain-name
            o: domain-name
            description: Full Company Name Domain

    Note: As of OpenLDAP 2.1.2.13, the default configuration will allow only one suffix to be defined for each bdb database. The C preprocessor directive #define BDB_MULTIPLE_SUFFIXES (file: servers/slapd/back-bdb/init.c) may be used if you want to compile in multiple suffix support. If you use it, subtree indexing will slow down by factor of 2. The use of suffixAlias is no longer supported by default in version 2.1.13.

    For more inetOrgPerson data schema info see:
        Object definition file: /etc/openldap/schema/inetorgperson.schema
        RFC 2798 - Definition of the inetOrgPerson LDAP Object Class

    
    inetOrgPerson object attributes:
        Requires:
            objectClass: organizationalPerson
            objectClass: person (Inherited from object organizationalPerson)
            objectClass: top (Inherited from object person)
            sn (Surename/Last Name - Inherited from object person)
            cn (Common Name - Inherited from object person)
        May have:
            o (Organization Name)
            displayName (RFC2798: Preferred name of a person to be used when displaying entries)
            audio
            businessCategory
            carLicense
            departmentNumber
            employeeNumber
            employeeType (i.e. "Contractor", "Employee", "Intern", "Temp", "External", "Unknown", etc...)
            givenName
            homePhone
            homePostalAddress (After street number and name use line separator "$" in LDIF file: street$ st postalCode)
            initials (MS/Outlook considers this to be the middle name)
            jpegPhoto (See the OpenLDAP FAQ: Turn a jpeg into ldif format)
            labeledURI
            mail (e-Mail address)
            manager (Specify dn entry of manager)
            mobile
            pager
            photo
            roomNumber
            secretary (Specify dn entry of secretary)
            uid
            userCertificate
            x500uniqueIdentifier
            preferredLanguage
            userSMIMECertificate (RFC2633: A PKCS#7 [RFC2315] SignedData)
            userPKCS12 (PKCS #12 [PKCS12] provides a format for exchange of personal identity information.)
            Attributes inherited from object organizationalPerson:
                ou (Organization unit)
                title
                x121Address
                registeredAddress
                destinationIndicator
                preferredDeliveryMethod
                telexNumber
                teletexTerminalIdentifier
                telephoneNumber (MS/Outlook considers this to be the "Business Phone")
                internationaliSDNNumber
                facsimileTelephoneNumber
                postOfficeBox
                postalAddress (MS/Outlook and Netscape both use this for the business address.)
                physicalDeliveryOfficeName (MS/Outlook considers this to be the field "Office")
                street (Don't use "street" because Netscape can't use it. Use "postalAddress".)
                l (Locality/City/Town)
                st (State/Province)
                postalCode (Zip code)
            Attributes inherited from object person:
                userPassword
                telephoneNumber (work phone)
                seeAlso (URL for more info)
                description

    Helpful LDIF links:
        LDIF example for multiple databases and granular security. - YoLinux TUTORIAL
        YoLinux LDAP Password Protection and Authentication Tutorial - Add more security to your data.
        (Note: This is authentication for the user to access the LDAP database and not using LDAP to authenticate applications)
        Create a new custom object by extending the inetOrgPerson schema - YoLinux TUTORIAL
        OpenLDAP.org Access Control FAQ
        Scripts and software tools to create LDIF files from ".csv" files. - (Some helpful tools I wrote)

    Notes:
        Note that the objectclass statement immediately follows the dn and cn definitions. By specification this should not be necessary but it is for Open LDAP. Do not put it at the end as does the Netscape Communicator ldif file.
        Each distinguished name (dn) definition in the ldif file must have one or more object classes. Resolve name collisions and duplicate entries by appending an emplyee number or special character. You can also reference an LDAP attribute guarenteed to be unique such as an emplyee number or email address in the "dn". Consider the "dn" to be a permanent value which is not updated as the other LDAP enties may be.
        U of Michigan literature suggests that the dn statement should be normalized with no extra blank spaces (bad: a comma, then blank space, then data). It also recommended against the use of alternate delimiters, use comma only. Database normalization to me means no duplicate data, but this is what I read. It is true that an extra blank between parameters may break ldap URL's generated from it.
        Trailing spaces are not trimmed from the values in an LDIF file, nor are internal spaces compressed. (from Open LDAP admin manual-7)
        A line may be continued by starting the next line with a single space or tab. (from Open LDAP admin manual-7)
        If a line begins with a space, colon, '< or the line contains a non-printable character, the attribute is followed by a double colon and the base64 encoded equivalent.
        All parts of the dn except the organizational name, are each represented as an attribute entry. This is a requirement of LDAP.
        Note that the administrator is listed in the database and the name matches that defined by the "rootdn" statement in the slapd.conf file.
        It might be tempting to create a bunch of organizational units (ou) and place people under these in the dn statement. DON'T! It's a pain to restructure later if people are moved. Best to assign as an attribute and leave it out of the dn statement.
        Loading the ldif address book from Netscape Communicator:
        (As described in ldap_db.cc of ldapconf)
            Add the domain definition to the beginning of the file.
            Add this definition to all dn statements.
            Move/add objectclass statements to lines following dn line.
            Add the the above attributes and class.

        Note that some of the attribute names have changed:

            Communicator ldif attribute    Mapping for Open LDAP
            modifytimestamp    Drop this piece of data from ldif file.
            Generated upon creation
            xmozillanickname    Added attribute nickname
            xmozillausehtmlmail    Added attribute usehtmlmail
            givenname    Added attribute givenname
            streetaddress    Used existing attribute "postalAddress" instead
            countryname    Drop or use existing attribute "c" instead.
            (Note: "c" not part of inetOrgPerson object. Schema must be extended to use it.)
            xmozillauseconferenceserver    Dropped this piece of data.
            pagerphone    Used existing attribute "pager" instead
            cellphone    Used existing attribute "mobile" instead
            homeurl    Used existing attribute "seeAlso" instead.
            Must first define as a DN and then refer to DN.
            xmozillaanyphone    Dropped this piece of redundant data.

        For more LDIF info see:
            RFC 2849 - The LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) - Technical Specification
            OpenLDAP 2.0 Admin Manual - 7.3 The LDIF text entry format
    Starting and stopping LDAP:

        LDAP interaction is with the slapd daemon. This can be invoked (on Redhat) by /etc/init.d/ldap start or Ubuntu /etc/init.d/slapd start. Upon startup the slapd daemon will read the /etc/openldap/slapd.conf file.

        To stop the slapd LDAP daemon: /etc/init.d/ldap stop (or Ubuntu: /etc/init.d/slapd stop)

        Note: Edit configuration files first and then start the system.

    Load LDAP with the following command:
        OpenLDAP 2.x (RH 7.x/8.0/9.0):
            Adding LDIF data to a running LDAP server:

                        ldapadd -f input-def.ldif -xv -D "cn=AdminManager,o=domain-name" -W
                   

                x - Use simple authentication instead of SASL.
                v - Verbose mode. Highly recommended for debugging purposes.
                c - Continuous mode. Don't stop if one fails, skip it and keep going.
                h - Host name of server (or IP address)
                D - Use the given "dn" to bind to the database.
                W - Prompts for simple authentication.
            The program will prompt for the password specified by the "rootpw" statement in the slapd.conf file. (As defined by the option -W)

            Generating an LDAP database from an LDIF file:

                        slapadd -l input-def.ldif -cv
                   

            I like to use this method for debugging an LDIF file as it generated good error messages. The LDAP server (slapd) MUST NOT be running when using this command.
        OpenLDAP 1.2 (RH 6.x):

                    ldapadd -cv -D "cn=AdminManager, o=domain-name.org" -W < input-def.ldif
               

            c - Continuous mode. Don't stop if one fails, skip it and keep going.
            v - Verbose mode. Highly recommended for debugging purposes.
            D - Use the given "dn" to bind to the database.
            W - Prompts for simple authentication.

        The program will prompt for the password specified by the "rootpw" statement in the slapd.conf file. (As defined by the option -W)
    Test LDAP with the following command: OpenLDAP 2.x

        ldapsearch -vLx -b "o=domain-name" "(objectclass=*)"
        or
        ldapsearch -vLx -h 127.0.0.1 -b "o=domain-name" "(objectclass=*)"

        Stooges example: ldapsearch -vLx -h 127.0.0.1 -b "o=stooges" "(sn=Fine)"

    The addition of the "-x" argument enables simple authentication (you are asked for the password specified as rootpw defined in the file /etc/openldap/slapd.conf) instead of SASL.
    The expression "-h 127.0.0.1" will specify localhost explicitly. (It's the only way I can get it to work.)

    OpenLDAP 1.2

        ldapsearch -L -b "cn=AdminManager, o=domain-name" "(objectclass=*)"
        or
        ldapsearch -h "ldap.domain-name" -L -b "o=domain-name" "(sn=Fine)"

    
    Test LDAP with Your Netscape Browser: Use an LDAP enabled browser with an appropriate URL:

      ldap://ldap.yolinux.com/cn=Larry Fine,ou=MemberGroupA,o=stooges

    This method will display directory information in the Netscape browser. MS/Windows Explorer will defer the information to the MS/Outlook address book for display and data transfer.

    For more on LDAP URL's see RFC 2255: The LDAP URL Format.

    
    Test LDAP with an E-mail client: The true test is of course is with an e-mail client. See the list of clients and links to configuration notes at the top of this page.

    Netscape Messenger 4.5+:

    Adding custom search boxes: File: $HOME/.netscape/preferences.js
    (MS/Windows clients: C:\ProgramFiles\Netscape\Users\user-name\prefs.js)
    (This step is not required, it just makes for a more intuitive presentation within the client)

    user_pref("ldap_2.servers.domain-name.attributes.ou", "Attribute-Display-Name:LDAP-Database-Attribute");
    user_pref("ldap_2.servers.domain-name.filter1", "(&(objectclass=LDAP-Object-Schema-Name)(LDAP-Database-Attribute=%s))");
    pref("ldap_2.servers.domain-name.maxHits", 400);

    If your organization has an attribute you wish employees to use as a searchable item, you can configure Netscape Messenger to display an advanced search box with the appropriate label by using the Javascript configuration statements above. The display changes will only apply to the domain specified. Substitute the bold italic entries with the appropriate data for your application. (i.e. LDAP-Object-Schema-Name could be inetOrgPerson and the LDAP-Database-Attribute could be any of that objects' attributes you wish to search such as "carLicense") By default Netscape 4.7x only displays the search items "Name", "Email", "Organization" and "Department".

    Example - Allow a search by State:

    user_pref("ldap_2.servers.Stooges.attributes.ou", "State:st");
    user_pref("ldap_2.servers.Stooges.filter1", "(&(objectclass=inetOrgPerson)(st=%s))");

    Note:
        Terminate the Netscape program before editing the file, then edit the file and then re-start Netscape.
        The domain is specified without the "." and is the same as the "Description" name.

Performance considerations:

    Index:

    For large LDAP databases one should index the searchable item. This will create an additional index file but will greatly enhance the speed of a search. For example the slapd.conf directive index cn eq will support an equality test (eq) on the LDAP "common name" (cn) attribute. This will only work if the name is an exact match. If using a wildcard in the search, then the substring match needs to be added: index cn eq,sub
    Note that certain LDAP attributes do not support substring searches.

    The index must be created with the initial configuration and database load or regenerated using the command slapindex.

    Add an index to an LDAP data field by defining it in the file: /etc/openldap/slapd.conf

    OpenLDAP 2.x

           index       sn,postalcode   pres,eq,sub

        Note that OpenLDAP 2.x requires that you mention the type of comparison filter used for the index.

        
        LDAP Qualifier    Description
        pres    Is the search attribute present as any value in the LDAP directory. Return all that have an entry. i.e. (st=*) returns all entries with a state entry regardless of the entry
        eq    Does the search string exactly match the attribute in the LDAP directory.
        sub    Does the search string match a substring of the attribute in the LDAP directory. i.e. (sn=*nderso*) or (sn=*anderson*)
        none    No index generated. Items like JPEG photo are not searchable items anyway.
        approx    Is the search string approximately equal to attribute based on a "metaphonic" algorithm. Not permitted in OpenLDAP.

    OpenLDAP 1.2

           index       sn,postalcode

        This will increase the speed of searches for entries based on surname and postalcode.

        To apply an index after a database has been created, dump the data and reload the data with LDAP restarted with the index defined.

        Also see the command slapindex which can re-generate an LDAP database index. (Must stop the slapd server first as it acts directly against the database.)

    LDBM Cache:

    Add a cache definition in the file: /etc/openldap/slapd.conf
    The following cache directives apply only to LDBM (default database) and must follow the "database ldbm" statement.

        cachesize       5000      - Size of in-memory cache used by LDBM
        dbcachesize     1000000   - Cache size in bytes associated with index file opened by the system

    It is recommended that the dbcachesize be set to the size of the largest index files.
    Logging Level:

    Run at a lower debug level to produce less logging output to log files: I have found that this can produce significant performance boost if you have been "over logging". Try setting logging to "none" with the option -d 32768. One can view the complete list of logging options with the comand slapd -d ?

        Installed log subsystems:

                Any                            (4294967295)
                Trace                          (1)
                Packets                        (2)
                Args                           (4)
                Conns                          (Cool
                BER                            (16)
                Filter                         (32)
                Config                         (64)
                ACL                            (128)
                Stats                          (256)
                Stats2                         (512)
                Shell                          (1024)
                Parse                          (2048)
                Sync                           (16384)
                None                           (32768)

        Results for OpenLDAP 2.4.9

        slapd and ldapsearch both include a "debugging" option:

            /usr/sbin/slapd -d 3 -f /etc/openldap/slapd.conf
            or
            add options to init script (Red Hat/Fedora/CentOS): /etc/init.d/ldap (or Ubuntu/Debian: /etc/init.d/slapd).

        Note:
            RH 6.x default configuration runs straight with defaults. (no command line options)
            RH 7.1 default configuration:
                Runs under the user id "ldap". Slapd command line option: -u ldap
                Specifies a URL: -h '"ldap:/// ldaps:///"'

            To add options, create the file: (as referenced by the init script)
                Red Hat/Fedora/CentOS: /etc/sysconfig/ldap
                Ubuntu/Debian: /etc/default/slapd

            i.e.:

                    SLAPD_OPTIONS="-d 3"       (RH 6.x OpenLDAP 1.2)

                    SLAPD_OPTIONS="-d 32 -d 64 -d 256"       Extreme level of debugging. Leave blank for defaults.
                                                             Default is 256. (RH 7.1 OpenLDAP 2.0)
                   

    LDAP Options Config File: (Options used by init script /etc/init.d/ldap to start LDAP)
        Red Hat: /etc/sysconfig/ldap
        Ubuntu: /etc/default/slapd
    Default option    Description
    SLAPD_CONF    Red Hat default: SLAPD_CONF="/etc/openldap/slapd.conf"
    Ubuntu default: SLAPD_CONF="/etc/ldap/slapd.conf"
    SLAPD_USER    Red Hat default: SLAPD_USER="ldap"
    Ubuntu default: SLAPD_USER="openldap"
    SLAPD_PIDFILE    Path to the pid file of the slapd server. Typically set by the init.d script.
    SLAPD_SERVICES    Ubuntu: SLAPD_SERVICES="ldap://127.0.0.1:389/ ldaps:/// ldapi:///"
    SLAPD_OPTIONS    Red Hat default: SLAPD_OPTIONS=""

    Also see the OpenLDAP.org Performance Tuning FAQ

Backup LDAP database:

Backup LDAP database with the following command:
OpenLDAP 2.x

    Newer (Fedora, RHEL4/5 or Ubuntu 6.06/Cool using "bdb":

        /usr/sbin/slapcat -v -n 1 -l  /opt/BACKUP/ldap.ldif

    Older (Red Hat 9) using "ldbm":

        /usr/sbin/ldbmcat -n /var/lib/ldap/id2entry.gdbm > /opt/BACKUP/ldap.ldif

OpenLDAP 1.2

    /usr/sbin/ldbmcat -n /var/lib/ldap/id2entry.dbb > /opt/BACKUP/ldap.ldif

Note that this backup may not be suitable for re-loading. The order is random if it has been modified. The object definition for the domain itself must be the first definition. If it is not then move it there manually so that it can reload successfully.

Using LDAP slapd slapcat method: slapcat -v -n 2 -l delta.ldif

    -v: Verbose mode.
    -n 2: The second database definition listed in the /etc/openldap/slapd.conf file.
    -l: Name of LDIF output file.

This method is no better or worse than using ldbmcat. The LDIF files generated by ldbmcat and slapcat are identical.

Also see: Scripts and software tools to convert LDIF files to the useful ".csv" backup form. - (Some helpful tools I wrote)

Adding an entry to an existing LDAP directory:

File: schemp.ldif

    dn: cn=Schemp Anderson,ou=MemberGroupB,o=stooges
    ou: MemberGroupB
    o: stooges
    cn: Schemp Anderson
    objectClass: top
    objectClass: person
    objectClass: organizationalPerson
    objectClass: inetOrgPerson
    givenName: Schemp
    sn: Anderson
    uid: schemp
    homePostalAddress: 20 Cherry Ln.$Plano TX 78888
    pager: 800-555-1320
    title: Development Engineer
    facsimileTelephoneNumber: 800-555-3320
    mail: SAnderson@isp.com
    homePhone: 800-555-1320
    telephoneNumber: (800)555-1220
    mobile: 800-555-1320
    postalAddress: 20 Fitzhugh Ave.
    l: Dallas
    st: TX
    postalCode: 76888

Command: ldapadd -f schemp.ldif -h 127.0.0.1 -xv -D "cn=StoogeAdmin,o=stooges" -W

Notes: LDAP on Ubuntu distribution:

    [Potential Pitfall]: The Ubuntu/Debian security policy architecture is known as "apparmor". (by contrast, Red Hat uses "SELinux".) If creating a subdirectory for your LDAP database (i.e. slapd.conf configuration: directory /var/lib/ldap/stooges), you may get the following error in the system log file /var/log/syslog:

        /etc/ldap/slapd.conf: line XX: invalid path: Permission denied

    where "XX" is the line number of the error in the file /etc/ldap/slapd.conf.
    Change the Apparmor configuration to support subdirectories by editing the file: /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.slapd
    Change from:

        ..
        ...

        # the databases and logs
        /var/lib/ldap/ r,
        /var/lib/ldap/* rw,

        ...
        ..


    To:

        ..
        ...

        # the databases and logs
        /var/lib/ldap/ r,
        /var/lib/ldap/** rwk,

        ...
        ..

        Restart Apparmor: /etc/init.d/apparmor restart

Notes: LDAP on Red Hat/Fedora distribution:

    [Potential Pitfall]: Red Hat Enterprise 5/CentOS 5 upgrade to 2.3.43 a start or restart of an existing LDAP installation gives the following error:

        Checking configuration files for slapd: bdb_db_open: Warning - No DB_CONFIG file found in directory /var/lib/ldap/stooges: (2)
        Expect poor performance for suffix o=stooges.org
        config file testing succeeded

    Fix:

        cp /etc/openldap/DB_CONFIG.example /var/lib/ldap/stooges/DB_CONFIG
        chown ldap.ldap /var/lib/ldap/stooges/DB_CONFIG
        /etc/init.d/ldap restart
        /etc/init.d/ldap restart

        Yes restart twice. The first time will perform a database recovery. The second will start smoothly without protest.

    Manual DB recovery: /usr/sbin/slapd_db_recover -v -h /var/lib/ldap/stooges/
    [Potential Pitfall]: Fedora Core 3 and later: (OpenLDAP 2.2.13 and later) Add the statement "allow bind_v2" after the schema "include" directives in the file /etc/openldap/slapd.conf if you wish to allow the use of older clients.

    [Potential Pitfall]: Red Hat 9.0 introduced a database change from 7.3. I had to dump the database and reload.

    [Potential Pitfall]: The OpenLDAP version shipped with Red Hat 9.0 introduced a change! When using the command "ldapadd" you MUST use the argument "-h 127.0.0.1" as it is no longer implied.

    During investigation and development I would:
        Shut down LDAP: /etc/init.d/ldap stop
        Remove the old database: rm /var/lib/ldap/*
        DO NOT DO THIS WITH slapd RUNNING!!!!
        If you do, the system will hang so bad, you will not be able to kill the process or shutdown the system cleanly! (RH6.2 kernel 2.2.14-12)
        Edit the /etc/openldap/slapd.conf and my ldif file
        Restart LDAP: /etc/init.d/ldap start
        Create and load new LDAP database: ldapadd -cv -D "cn=AdminManager, o=...
        If you are supporting only one group or organization, you can specify a default base for client programs in /etc/openldap/ldap.conf: BASE dc=place-dc-here. This is stated in the literature but I did not check if this affected the slapd process.
        Then I would test with Netscape Communicator or gq in browse mode.

OpenLDAP 1.2:

    Migration tools located in /usr/share/openldap/migration/
    See notes in local file: /usr/doc/openldap-1.2.9/TOOLS.migration

[Potential Pitfall]: PAM misconfiguration:

    File (default): /etc/hosts.deny

       ALL:ALL

    This set-up will deny everyone including localhost!!!
    Remove this line which is often default.

    Be sure to at least add the following to: /etc/hosts.allow

       ALL:127.0.0.1

[Potential Pitfall]: Ipchains/Iptables misconfiguration:

    The Red Hat 7.1-9.0 and Fedora installations will have you configure firewall rules which may conflict with access to the LDAP server. To flush all firewall rules:

      iptables -F
    OR
      ipchains -F

[Potential Pitfall]: LDAP won't start

    Check log file /var/log/messages

    slaptest: sql_select option missing
    slaptest: auxpropfunc error no mechanism available
    ldap:  succeeded
    slapd[4200]: sql_select option missing
    slapd[4200]: auxpropfunc error no mechanism available

    If the config files /etc/openldap/ldap.conf or /etc/openldap/slapd.conf are owned by root it will cause this error.
    Fix: chown ldap.ldap /etc/openldap/ldap.conf /etc/openldap/slapd.conf

[Potential Pitfall]: Directory access

    The Red Hat 7.1-9.0 and Fedora versions of Open LDAP runs the LDAP server "slapd" under the user id "ldap". Thus all directories and files that the LDAP server must access must be accessible by the user "ldap". (preferably owned by user "ldap"). This is a configuration change between Red Hat 6.x, which used root, and Red Hat 7.1.

[Potential Pitfall]: Can't access LDAP server with client
Note for Fedora Core 3: (OpenLDAP 2.2.13) Add the statement "allow bind_v2" after the schema "include" directives in the file /etc/openldap/slapd.conf if you wish to allow the use of older clients.

Debugging tips: To take a peak inside the database:

   strings /var/lib/ldap/id2entry.gdbm | more

OpenLDAP Man Pages:

Open LDAP UNIX commands:

    ldapmodify - connects to an LDAP server, binds, and modifies entries
    ldapadd - connects to an LDAP server, binds, and adds entries
    ldapdelete - Deletes an LDAP entry
    ldapmodrdn - modifies the Relative Distinguished Name (RDN) of an entry (i.e. change cn of an entry)
    ldappasswd - change the password of an LDAP entry
    slappasswd - OpenLDAP password utility
    ldapsearch - ldap search tool
    ud - interactive LDAP Directory Server query program

Configuration files:

    ldap.conf - slapd configuration file which set system wide defaults to be applied when running ldap clients
    ldapfilter.conf - configuration file for LDAP get filter routines
    ldapfriendly - data file for LDAP friendly routines
    ldapsearchprefs.conf - configuration file for LDAP search preference routines
    ldaptemplates.conf - configuration file for LDAP display template routines
    ldif (5) - LDAP Data Interchange Format
    slapd.conf - configuration file for slapd, the stand-alone LDAP daemon
    slapd.replog - slapd replication log format
    ud.conf - ud configuration file
    centipede - an LDAP centroid generation and maintenance program

Support programs/conversions:

    chlog2replog - convert an X.500 DSA-style changelog to an LDAP-style replication log
    edb2ldif - QUIPU EDB file to LDIF conversion tool
    fax500 - X.500 capable fax delivery agent
    mail500 - X.500 capable mailer
    rcpt500 - mail to X.500 gateway program and program replies with result of query.
    go500 - Local Gopher index search to X.500 search gateway
    go500gw - General Gopher to X.500 gateway for browsing and searching
    in.xfingerd - Finger to LDAP/X.500 gateway daemon
    ldbmcat - LDBM to LDIF database format conversion utility
    ldif (Cool - convert arbitrary data to LDIF format
    ldif2id2children / ldif2id2entry / ldif2index / ldif2ldbm - LDIF to LDBM database format conversion utilities
    slapindex - Regenerate SLAPD index to LDIF utility

LDAP processes/daemons:

    slapd - a stand-alone LDAP directory server
    Also see Zytrax slapd.conf guide
    slurpd - a stand-alone LDAP replication server
    ldapd - an LDAP-to-X.500 gateway server

LDAP Software development SDK man pages and RFC's

The Berkeley BDB database:

The back-bdb is now the new preferred database format and the old back-ldbm code has been removed from OpenLDAP.

The Berkeley database software tools have names which are Linux distribution dependant:

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4: db41_archive, db41_checkpoint, db41_deadlock, db41_dump, db41_load, db41_printlog, db41_recover, db41_stat, db41_upgrade, db41_verify
    Part of compat-db-4.1.25-9 RPM package. (No man pages)
    Ubuntu: db4.3_archive, db4.3_checkpoint, db4.3_deadlock, db4.3_dump, db4.3_load, db4.3_printlog, db4.3_recover, db4.3_stat, db4.3_upgrade, db4.3_verify
    Library installation: sudo apt-get install libdb4.4
    (Has man pages!)
    Also: db4.2_archive, db4.2_checkpoint, db4.2_deadlock, ...

Example database recovery:

    Test database: /usr/sbin/slaptest -d 255

        bdb(o=megacorp.com): PANIC: fatal region error detected; run recovery
        bdb_db_open: dbenv_open failed: DB_RUNRECOVERY: Fatal error, run database recovery (-30978)
        backend_startup: bi_db_open failed! (-30978)

    Recover database:
        Go to the directory in which the database files are located: cd /var/lib/ldap
        Run db recovery: db4.2_recover
        [Potential Pitfall]: If the db4.2_recover returns the following errors:

        db_recover: PANIC: fatal region error detected; run recovery
        db_recover: PANIC: fatal region error detected; run recovery
        db_recover: DB_ENV->open: DB_RUNRECOVERY: Fatal error, run database recovery
               

        try removing the log file(s) rm log.0000000001 and then try to perform the recovery again.

Links:

    Oracle/SleepyCat Berkeley BDB database manual
    Man Pages:
        db4.4_archive - Find unused log files for archiving purposes
        db4.4_checkpoint - Periodically checkpoint (write and sync) transactions.
        db4.4_deadlock - Detect and abort deadlocks
        db4.4_dump - Write database to flat-text format
        db4.4_load - Load data from standard in
        db4.4_printlog - Dumps Berkeley DB log files in a human-readable format
        db4.4_recover - Restore the database to a consistent state
        db4.4_stat - Display statistics for Berkeley DB environments
        db4.4_upgrade - Upgrade the Berkeley DB version to the current release version.
        db4.4_verify - Verifies the structure databases

YoLinux.com LDAP Tutorials:

    Using LDAP for Apache Authentication
    OpenLdap 2.x - SLAPD and LDIF configuration
    OpenLdap 1.2 - SLAPD and LDIF configuration
    Client Login Authentication using LDAP - Linux, MS/Windows 2000/pGina, SGI/IRIX
    LDAP Authentication and user passwords - Adding password protection to LDAP directory.
    (Note: This is authentication for the user to access the LDAP database and not using LDAP to authenticate applications)
    OpenLdap 1.2 Group security example - SLAPD and LDIF configuration
    Create a new custom object by extending the inetOrgPerson schema
    OpenLDAP 2.x Schema Extension to support MS/Outlook, Netscape 4.5+, PAM,.. (GILSE)
    LDAP admin support scripts and code snipets
    LDAP Software development SDK man pages, RFC's and Links
    Mapping LDAP inetOrgPerson object attributes to Palm Pilot Desktop CSV exchange file
    aWebDap - A simple, flexible web front end supporting multiple domains designed for the non-technical user. My favorite, but hey, I wrote it!!

LDAP Links:

Public LDAP Servers on the Internet: Check out and try out other LDAP installations.

    List of Public LDAP servers - by country
    LDAP Directories
    US Universities

LDAP Desktop Admin tools and Clients:

    SourceForge: gq - Written with gtk for Gnome environment (Excellent! My favorite LDAP administration tool!!!) - Part of the base Red Hat Linux distribution (RH7.1). (Older releases look on the Powertools CD.) Red Hat 8.0/9.0 does not ship with gq. I installed the gq rpm from the Red Hat 7.3 distribution.
    LDAP Browser/Editor - JAVA browser/editor
    Frood - Desktop client/management tool (GTK/PERL)
    tclLdap - [Download]
    Ldapconf - configuration module for Linuxconf.
    Scripts and software tools to handle/manipulate/import/export LDIF files. - (Some helpful tools I wrote)

LDAP Web Clients:

    aWebDAP - [Demo] - A simple, flexible web front end supporting multiple domains designed for the non-technical user. My favorite, but hey, I wrote it!!
    Web500gw
    Extending X500 searches
    LDAP abook - Perl CGI address book
    Rolodap: PHP LDAP web front-end
    web2ldap - (Python) Download and demo (good!)
    Requires ldapmodule:
        Python-LDAP
        web2ldap - LDAPv3 web client

LDAP Clients: (authentication)

    Apache: Web site login/authentication with LDAP
        YoLinux.com Tutorial: Using LDAP for Apache Authentication
        Apache LDAP module - auth_ldap module
        Apache mod_auth_ldap web server module for authentication with Netscape or OpenLDAP servers (Good HowTo)
        Apache LDAP UserDir query
    Squid proxy server:
        squid_auth_ldap (Novell Forge)
    Postfix and LDAP
    QMail and LDAP - patch to QMail
    Sympa - Mail list manager which extracts e-mail addresses from LDAP queries.
    PAM:
        Red Hat: LDAP and PAM
        Debian: LDAP PAM configuration
    HowTo LDAP for DNS/NIS
    /usr/share/doc/samba-2.2.7/LDAP/ - local files and documentation - SAMBA LDAP authentication schemas and use with smbpasswd

OpenLDAP.org web site:

    Open LDAP home page
    OpenLDAP Version 2.X (LDAP V3)
        OpenLDAP 2.2 Administrator's Guide
    OpenLDAP Version 1.2 (LDAP V2)
        Open LDAP: slapd configuration, adding info
        The OpenLDAP Quick Start Guide
        OpenLDAP Software FAQ

LDAP - Information links:

    LDAP: General description
    Red Hat Linux 7.1 Reference Guide: LDAP - OpenLDAP 2.0
    LDAP Howto - by Luiz Ernesto Pinheiro Malere (2.0)
    University of Michigan LDAP Info / Configuration / Development - The original code and docs. - Openldap 1.2 compatible information.
    LDAP: Running on Redhat 6.1 info (OpenLDAP 1.2)
    A most excellent and complete LDAP Presentation: OpenLDAP on Linux - Adam Williams
    Jeff Hodge's Roadmap: Lots of Links
    LDAP with OpenSSL, SASL, and Kerberos - V3
    Mapping OpenLDAP schema to MS/Outlook - Also see What LDAP Attributes Are Recognised
    MS/Exchange Server Directory Schema Contents
   
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jamied_uk
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